Moldova, Republic of - Current conflicts
 
 
 
INVOLVEMENT IN ARMED CONFLICT 
 
Current conflicts 
Peace operations 
Non-state actors 
Applicable international law 
 
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
 
National
Overview 
Legislation 
Judicial decisions 
Other
 
International
International treaties adherence 
Regional treaties adherence 
Judicial decisions 
Peace treaties 
UN resolutions and reports 
Regional organisations resolutions and reports 
UN Human Rights Council Universal Periodic Review 
Moldova, Republic of
 
Current conflicts
 
Transdniester

Before Moldova’s declaration of independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, Transdniester, a strip of land between the river Dniester and the border with Ukraine, unilaterally declared its own independence. The move came after alarm over growing Moldovan nationalism, the possible reunification with Romania, and a 1989 language law proclaiming Moldovan as the official language. A "Transdniestrian Moldovan Republic" (TMR) or "Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublica" in Russian, was proclaimed in Tiraspol on 2 September 1990. This led to localised combat, in which several hundred people were killed and thousands more displaced.

The TMR is said to have organised paramilitary "workers’ detachments", on the basis of which a fully armed and professional "Republican Guard" was created in 1991. On 2 September 1991, Transdniester authorities voted to join the Soviet Union. On 28 March 1992, a state of emergency was introduced in Moldova. Fighting continued, however, with the summer of 1992 seeing a peak in armed clashes and victims, particularly in a battle over the city of Tighina/Bendery. There were allegations that the Russian 14th Army, stationed on the left bank of the Dniester, directly or indirectly assisted the secessionists. The then-Conference for Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) pointed to arms transfers, the transfer of an engineering battalion and training as having taken place between the 14th Army and military authorities of the TMR.

After peacekeeping within the CSCE or the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) frameworks was ruled out, a Moldovan-Russian initiative, signed in Moscow on 21 July 1992, found more success. The agreement called for an immediate ceasefire and the establishment of a demilitarised zone, 10km to the left and right of the Dniester river. A tripartite Joint Control Commission was to be set up, consisting of representatives of Moldova, Russia, and the TMR. Russian peacekeepers were brought in, alongside Moldovan and Transdniestrian ones, to stabilize the region and have remained in place ever since. In 2007, a US proposal for their replacement with an international peacekeeping contingent was rejected by Tiraspol authorities.

While Transdniester enjoys de facto autonomy, the Republic of Moldova and the international community do not recognize its independence. A September 2006 Transdniestrian referendum reasserting independence and the wish for adhesion to Russia went similarly unrecognized. It is frequently referred to as a "frozen conflict".

Sources

Ceslav Ciobanu, "NATO/EU Enlargement: Moldova and the "Frozen and Forgotten" Conflicts in Post-Soviet States",U.S. Institute of Peace, Washington D.C., July 22, 2004
"Moldova: Regional Tensions over Transdniestria", International Crisis Group (ICG) Europe Report No.157, Chişinău 2004
   
Moldova, Republic of links
   
   
Tuesday, 02 September 2014
Copyright 2014 © Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, Switzerland 
webmaster