In January 2011, violent repression of protests over unemployment and lack of political freedom left more than 100 people dead. However, the extent of the violence did not amount to an armed conflict of a non-international character governed by international humanitarian law. As a result of the protests, Hosni Mubarak announced he was stepping down as president on 11 February 2011, ending three decades in power.
There have also been terrorist attacks on a number of occasions in past years, including at the beginning of January 2011 when 21 people were killed in a bomb at church in Alexandria where Christians had gathered to mark the New Year.
Last updated: 18 April 2011