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International | International treaties adherence
 

The Russian Federation ratified on 24 January 2007 the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects (Geneva, 10 October 1980) (Amendment Article 1, 21 December 2001).

The Russian Federation is a party to the 1949 Geneva Conventions and their 1977 Additional Protocols. However, it has not yet ratified the 2005 Third Protocol. It has also not ratified the Rome Statute, and has not signed the Ottawa Convention.

Regarding human rights conventions Russia is a party to the 1966 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), 1981 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and 1984 Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT).

However, it is not a party to all recent conventions: the 1990 Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and its Protocols, the 1990 Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers, the 2006 Convention on the Right of Persons with Disabilities and the 2007 Convention on Enforced Disappearances.

   
 
 Treaty List
 
International Humanitarian Law Adherence dateCommentary (including relevant reservations, derogations and declarations)
Geneva Conventions I, II, III, IV 1949
10.05.54
GCI-IV. Article 10/10/10/11: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics will not recognize the validity of requests by the Detaining Power to a neutral State or to a humanitarian organization, to undertake the functions performed by a Protecting Power, unless the consent of the Government of the country of which the protected persons are nationals has been obtained."
GCIII-
Article 12: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics does not consider as valid the freeing of a Detaining Power, which has transferred prisoners of war to another Power, from responsibility for the application of the Convention to such prisoners of war while the latter are in the custody of the Power accepting them."
Article 85: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics does not consider itself bound by the obligation, which follows from Article 85, to extend the application of the Convention to prisoners of war who have been convicted under the law of the Detaining Power, in accordance with the principles of the Nuremberg trial, for war crimes and crimes against humanity, it being understood that persons convicted of such crimes must be subject to the conditions obtaining in the country in question for those who undergo their punishment."
GCIV
Article 45: "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics will not consider as valid the freeing of a Detaining Power, which has transferred protected persons to another Power, from responsibility for the application of the Convention to the persons transferred, while the latter are in the custody of the Power accepting them."
Additional Protocol I 197729.09.89
 
Additional Protocol II 197729.09.89
 
Additional Protocol III 2005 --
Signature only on 07.12.06.
Hague Conv. 1954  04.01.57
 
Hague Prot.. 195404.01.57
 
Hague Prot.. 1999--
 
ENMOD Conv. 197630.05.78
 
International Human rights Law Adherence dateCommentary (including relevant reservations, derogations and declarations)
ICERD 196506.03.69
eclaration on art. 17(1) "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics states that the provision in article 17, paragraph 1, of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination whereby a number of States are deprived of the opportunity to become Parties to the Convention is of a discriminatory nature, and hold that, in accordance with the principle of the sovereign equality of States, the Convention should be open to participation by all interested States without discrimination or restriction of any kind".
ICCPR 196623.03.76
Reservation on art. 48(1) - "The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics declares that the provisions of paragraph 1 of article 26 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and of paragraph 1 of article 48 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, under which a number of States cannot become parties to these Covenants, are of a discriminatory nature and considers that the Covenants, in accordance with the principle of sovereign equality of States, should be open for participation by all States concerned without any discrimination or limitation."
Declaration under art. 41 -recognizing the competence of the Committee (10/1991).
ICCPR - OP1 196601.01.92
 
ICCPR - OP2 1989--
 
ICESCR 196603.01.76
Declaration on Art. 26(1) (see above)
CEDAW 197903.09.81
 
OP-CEDAW 199928.10.04
 
CAT 198426.06.87
Declaration under Art. 21 and 22 (recognition of the competence of the Committee to receive and consider communications from States and individuals).
OP-CAT 2002--
 
CRC 199015.09.90
 
CRC Optional Protocol Armed Conflict 200024.09.08
The Russian Federation, pursuant to article 3, paragraph 2, of the Optional Protocol, declares that, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, citizens under the age of 18 may not be recruited for military service in the armed forces of the Russian Federation and a military service contract may not be concluded with them;

In accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, citizens who have reached the age of 16 are entitled to admission to professional military educational institutions. Upon enrolment in these institutions they shall acquire the status of members of the military performing compulsory military service. The legislation of the Russian Federation guarantees that such citizens shall conclude military service contracts on reaching the age of 18, but not before they have completed the first year of education in these educational institutions.

CRC Optional Protocol Sale of Children 2000--
 
ICRMW 1990--
 
Disability Rights Convention 24.09.08
 
Convention on Enforced Disappearances --
 
Weapons Adherence dateCommentary (including relevant reservations, derogations and declarations)
Geneva Gas Protocol 192505.04.28
 
Biological Weapons Convention 197226.03.75

The Embassy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics refers to the Department of State's Note dated April 6, 1973, regarding the deposit by a representative of Chiang-Kai-Shek of an instrument of ratification of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, and hereby confirms the position of the Soviet Union regarding the illegality of the above-mentioned act, inasmuch as the Chiang-Kai-Shek clique does not represent anyone and does not have the right to act in the name of China; the government of the Chinese People's Republic is the sole representative of China.

At Moscow:
The Soviet Government is of the opinion that, as decisions of the General Assembly have repeatedly stated, the United Kingdom bears full responsibility with regard to Southern Rhodesia until the people of that Territory achieve real independence. This fully applies to the Convention in question also.
Chemical Weapons Convention 199305.11.97
 
Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons 198010.06.82
 
CCW Protocol I 198010.06.82
 
CCW Prot. II 198010.06.82
 
CCW Prot. III 198010.06.82
 
CCW Prot. IV 199509.09.99
 
CCW Protocol II (amended) 199602.03.05
1. For the purposes of interpreting subparagraph 10 (c) of article 3, of Protocol II, the Russian Federation understands alternatives as non-flying devices and technologies which are not anti-personnel mines and may temporarily disable, paralyse or indicate the presence of one or several persons without causing irreversible harm to them;
2. In implementing subparagraph 2 (a) of article 5, of Protocol II, the Russian Federation holds the position that anti-personnel mines which are not remotely-delivered will be placed within perimeter-marked areas which are monitored by military personnel and protected by fencing or other means, to ensure the effective exclusion of civilians from such areas. Such marking must be of a distinct and durable character and must at least be visible to a person who is about to enter the perimeter-marked area. The line of the State border designated in the locality may be considered as the marking (designation) of part of the perimeter of a mined area within the border zone when there are active and repeated attempts to traverse it by armed intruders or when military, economic, physical and geographic, or other conditions make it impossible to use armed forces. The civilian population will be informed in good time about the danger of the mines and will not be allowed into the mined area;
3. For the purposes of interpreting subparagraph 1 (i) of article 7, of Protocol II, the Russian Federation understands the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples as cultural property in the terms of article 1 of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict of 1954;
4. The Russian Federation understands the commonly available technical mine detection equipment referred to in paragraph 2 (a) of the Technical Annex to Protocol II as the mine-searching equipment which is available in the Russian Federation and meets the requirements of the aforementioned paragraph;
5. In accordance with paragraph 2 (c) and paragraph 3 (c) of the Technical Annex to Protocol II, the Russian Federation will ensure the observance of paragraph 2 (b) and paragraphs 3 (a) and 3 (b) of the Technical Annex to Protocol II not later than nine years from the date of the entry into force of the said Protocol.
CCW Amendment 200124.01.07
 
CCW Prot. V 200321.07.08
 
Ottawa Treaty 1997--
 
 -- 
Refugees Adherence dateCommentary (including relevant reservations, derogations and declarations)
Refugee Conv. 1951  02.02.93
 
Refugee Prot.1967   02.02.93
 
International criminal law Adherence dateCommentary (including relevant reservations, derogations and declarations)
Slavery Convention 1926--
 
Genocide Convention. 1948  03.05.54

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics declares that it is not in agreement with article XII of the Convention and considers that all the provisions of the Convention should extend to Non-Self-Governing Territories, including Trust Territories.
Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity 1968   22.04.69Declaration: "The provisions of articles V and VII of the Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, which prevent certain States from signing the Convention or acceding to it, are contrary to the principle of the sovereign equality of States".
ICC Rome Statute 1998--
Signature only on 13.09.00.
Terrorism Adherence dateCommentary (including relevant reservations, derogations and declarations)
Convention Against the Taking of Hostages 197911.06.87
Upon signature:
Declaration:
It is the position of the Russian Federation that the provisions of article 15 of the Convention must be applied in such a way as to ensure the inevitability of responsibility for perpetrating the crimes falling within the purview of the Convention, without prejudice to the effectiveness of international cooperation with regard to the questions of extradition and legal assistance.
Upon ratification:
Declarations:
1. ....
2. It is the position of the Russian Federation that the provisions of article 15 of the Convention must be applied in such a way as to ensure the inevitability of responsibility for perpetrating crimes falling within the purview of the Convention, without prejudice to the effectiveness of international cooperation with regard to the questions of extradition and legal assistance.

Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism 199927.11.02
 
Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings 199708.05.01
Upon signature:
Declaration:
The position of the Russian Federation is that the provisions of article 12 of the Convention should be implemented in such a way as to ensure the inevitability of responsibility for the commission of offences falling within the scope of the Convention, without detriment to the effectiveness of international cooperation on the questions of extradition and legal assistance.
Upon ratification:
Declarations:
.....
2) "The position of the Russian Federation is that the provisions of article 12 of the Convention should be implemented in such a way as to ensure the inevitability of responsibility for the commission of offenses falling within the scope of the Convention, without detriment to the effectiveness of international cooperation on the questions of extradition and legal assistance".
"The Russian Federation declares that in accordance with paragraph 3 of article 6 of the International Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (hereinafter - the Convention) it has established its jurisdiction over the offences set forth in article 2 of the Convention in cases envisaged in paragraphs 1 and 2 of article 6 of the Convention."


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