This research project was undertaken under the auspices of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights in close cooperation with Geneva Call. Stephen Wilkinson led the research at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law, assisted by Amélie Larocque, while Jonathan Somer coordinated Geneva Call’s input. This project was undertaken after discussions with the Program on Humanitarian Policy and Conflict Research (HCPR), which is currently working on a project on Monitoring, Reporting and Fact-Finding. It is hoped that the research done here will feed into and complement the work of HCPR. The author would like to thank Marco Sassoli and Andrew Clapham for their support, advice, guidance and invaluable comments, and Robert Archer for his exceptional editing work. A special thank you must be given John Ralston (Chief of Investigations- ICTY from 1998 to 2001, Chief Investigator for the Darfur Commission) and Mohamed Ali Lejmi (Investigator for the Darfur Commission) who provided invaluable insight and ideas during the early stages of the research. Finally, this research would have not been possible, was it not for the hard work of Nelleke Van Amstel, Helen Obregon and Yvette Issar, who provided extensive background research. All mistakes and errors are the author’s alone. Geneva Call would like to thank their donors for this project, the Department for International Law of the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs.