The Armed Conflict in Israel-Palestine

West Bank, Qalqilya, enclaved village of Azun Atme. Azun Atme check-point and West Bank barrier between Beit Amin and the settlement of Sha'arei Tikva West Bank, Qalqilya, enclaved village of Azun Atme. Azun Atme check-point and West Bank barrier between Beit Amin and the settlement of Sha'arei Tikva

1 February 2018

Our new publication The Armed Conflict in Israel-Palestine provides an update of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and highlights 2017’s most important developments.

Written by Montse Ferrer, the article starts by analysing the current situation in the West Bank, East Jerusalem and Gaza, and discusses the timeframe and challenges related to the preliminary examination of the situation in Palestine by the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) of the International Criminal Court (ICC). The article ends by highlighting key 2017 developments and parties to the conflict.

This publication will form part, along with other analysis of conflict situations, of the War Report 2017 which will be published in Spring 2018.

Settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, and President Trump’s Decision

President Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel happens in a context where efforts to expand settlements in Palestinian-owned land have continued, particularly in East Jerusalem, leading to an increase in evictions of Palestinian families. As explained in the article, the long-term impact of Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, along with its legal and diplomatic consequences are not yet clear.

Conflict in Israel Palestine Israeli Settlements in the West Bank

Gaza Strip: 10 years of Blockade and 2017 Fatah-Hamas Reconciliation

After 10 years of blockade of the Gaza strip by Israel and Egypt, whose effects have been catastrophic for the population, Fatah and Hamas signed on 11 October 2017 a reconciliation agreement in which Hamas agreed to transfer administrative control of Gaza to the Palestinian Authority (PA), including the Rafah border with Egypt. In return, the PA will lift its sanctions, easing Gaza’s economic blockade.

As this is not the first attempt at reunification, the article lists open questions and issues that remain unresolved by the agreement and have led to the failure of past reconciliation attempts.

The International Criminal Court (ICC)

In April 2014, the ICC Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) opened a preliminary examination into the situation in Palestine to determine whether the criteria have been met to merit pursuing a formal investigation into crimes committed in and from Palestine, focusing on (1) settlement-related activities in the West Bank and East Jerusalem, in particular as they are linked to the displacement of Palestinian residents; and (2) the 2014 Gaza conflict.

The article highlights that for the OPT to pursue a formal investigation, it will have to determine whether the situation in Palestine satisfies the Rome Statute’s admissibility requirements of complementarity and gravity – a determination of whether Israel is ‘unwilling or unable’ to investigate or punish the accused; and an assessment of the scale, nature, manner of commission of the alleged crimes and their impact.

The article also points that the OTP signaled that it will also have to decide two thorny jurisdictional issues: the legal regime applicable to the territory of the West Bank and the legal characterization of the Gaza conflict.

Parties to the Conflict

The parties to the conflict continue to be Israel and Palestine, with the two key political factions – Fatah and Hamas – along with multiple armed groups which can generally be categorized as being part of one of the following groups: Hamas affiliated, Fatah affiliated, Palestinian Islamic Jihad or Salafist Groups.

Besides these parties, the article highlights that one group that is poised to keep growing, if not in numbers and support, certainly in publicity, is Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant – Sinai Province (ISIL-SP). ‘While this group has been a strong critic of Hamas for several years, various reports highlight that ISIL-SP has been gaining popularity, at least with a certain part of the Palestinian society, especially in the Gaza Strip’ underlines the author of the article.

Military Occupation of Palestine by Israel in the Geneva Academy’s Rule of Law in Armed Conflict Conflicts Online Portal

The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts (RULAC) online portal provides a legal analysis of the military occupation of Palestine by Israel, notably the different forms of control exercised by Israel over the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip; identifies the parties; and applicable international law.

RULAC Military Occupation of Palestine by Israel

MORE ON THIS THEMATIC AREA

Rohingya fleeing to Bangladesh News

Myanmar: A Battle for Recognition

4 December 2017

Our new publication Myanmar: A Battle for Recognition provides an overview of the subnational tensions and armed violence in the country and focuses on the latest developments and escalation of violence in Rakhine state where the Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw) are opposed to the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army (ARSA).

Read more

Destroyed Building during the 2008 War News

Georgia-Abkhazia: The Predominance of Irreconcilable Positions

19 October 2018

The War Report article Georgia-Abkhazia: The Predominance of Irreconcilable Positions presents an overview of the Georgia-Abkhaz conflict, its humanitarian implications, as well as the main actors involved.

Read more

Event

Exposition Photo: Handicap et Conflit Armé

30 April - 30 May 2019

Cette exposition photo de Giles Duley raconte l’histoire de personnes handicapées durant et suite aux conflits armés.

Read more

Nigeria, a broken plate on the ground: Maiduguri, Jiddari Polo area. Items brought by displaced persons to represent the things they left behind. IHL Talks

Starvation and Armed Conflicts

2 May 2019, 12:30-14:00

This IHL Talk will examine the prohibition of starvation under both international humanitarian law and international criminal law. It will also address starvation's humanitarian consequences.

Read more

2017 edition of the Advanced Seminar in IHL for Lecturers and Researchers Training

Advanced Seminar in IHL for Lecturers and Researchers

9-13 September 2019

Organized by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the Geneva Academy,  this advanced seminar aims to enhance the capacity of lecturers and researchers to teach and research international humanitarian law contemporary issues, addressing both substantive and pedagogical aspects.

Read more

A general view of participants during of the 33nd ordinary session of the Human Rights Council. Training

The Universal Periodic Review and the UN Human Rights System: Raising the Bar on Accountability

30 September - 4 October 2019

This training course will explore the origin and evolution of the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) and its functioning in Geneva and will focus on the nature of implementation of the UPR recommendations at the national level.

Read more

Central African Republic, Ouham province, village of Ouogo. International Humanitarian Law dissemination session to members of the Peoples' Army for the Restoration of Democracy. Project

From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms

Started in January 2017

This project aims at compiling and analysing the practice and interpretation of selected international humanitarian law and human rights norms by armed non-state actors (ANSAs). It has a pragmatic double objective: first, to offer a comparative analysis of IHL and human rights norms from the perspective of ANSAs, and second, to inform strategies of humanitarian engagement with ANSAs, in particular the content of a possible ‘Model Code of Conduct’.

Read more

UN Peacekeepers on Patrol in Abyei, Sudan. Zambian peacekeepers from the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) patrol streets lined with looted items awaiting collection in Abyei, the main town of the disputed Abyei area on the border of Sudan and newly Project

The Intersection between Transitional Justice, International Security and Responsibility to Protect

Started in February 2017

This project aims at mapping various existing accountability mechanisms, in the context of military interventions, through the lens of the requirements of a transitional justice process in order to identify possibilities and gaps.

Read more