The Intersection between Transitional Justice, International Security and Responsibility to Protect

Started in February 2017

Security interests and humanitarian objectives as part of the responsibility to protect framework are fuelling military interventions whether within or outside the United Nations collective security system. Such foreign interventions raise major challenges for the design, legitimacy and local ownership of transitional justice processes that are limited to the accountability of local actors and towards local communities.

How can foreign interveners be held accountable? And to whom? These are key questions to be answered when analysing the intersection between transitional justice, international security and responsibility to protect. This project maps various existing accountability mechanisms through the lens of the requirements of a transitional justice process in order to identify possibilities and gaps.

Research outputs will be published by the end of 2017.


Picture of Sandra Krähenmann

Sandra Krähenmann

Research Fellow

Sandra Krähenmann's research focuses on the theory and practice of international law that applies in armed conflict and other situations of violence.


Gaza City, 2014. Palestinians check the remains of Al-Basha, a building that was destroyed by an Israeli air strike. Event

Public Pleadings by LLM Students on the Summer 2014 Gaza Conflict

June 2018, 09:00-16:00

In the framework of the LLM course on international humanitarian law (IHL), students will plead for Israel and Palestine arguing that the side they represent has respected IHL while the adverse side has violated IHL.

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Syria, 2016, outhwestern Aleppo. The ICRC meets displaced families living in collective shelters. Geneva Academy Wednesdays

Extraterritorial Non-International Armed Conflicts: Classification and Applicable Law

April 2018, 18:30-20:00

This Geneva Academy Wednesday proposes to discuss these current issues on classification and applicable law under international humanitarian law.

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East Timor, Dili, burnt houses Short Course

The Law of Non-International Armed Conflicts and Other Contested Issues

26 April - May 2018

This course examines one of the main purpose of international humanitarian law (IHL), which is to mitigate human suffering caused by war. It enables a careful evaluation of the various IHL rules intended to help protect vulnerable persons, such as civilians and prisoners of war, as well as property during armed conflict.

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UN Mission patrols disputed area in Sudan Short Course

Peacebuilding in Post-Conflict and Fragile Situations

13 April - May 2018

This course provides a concise and systematic treatment of the peacebuilding process in post-conflict and fragile situations. It adopts a holistic definition of peacebuilding that combines the socio-political issues with economic growth in a sustainable development perspective.

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South Sudan, Warrab. An ICRC information session on the Law of Armed Conflict with soldiers from Warrab State. Project

Armed Non-State Actors and the Human Rights Council

Completed in January 2015

Launched in 2016, this project aimed to identify whether, to what extent and under what circumstances armed non-state actors incur obligations under international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights (HR) law.

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ICC Trial Chamber VIII declares Mr Al Mahdi guilty of the war crime of attacking historic and religious buildings in Timbuktu and sentences him to nine years’ imprisonment Project

Modes of Liability for International Crimes

Started in January 2015

This project intends to clarify the conditions of accountability for international crimes by providing a detailed assessment of the customary international law status of, in particular, the actus reus and mens rea elements of modes of liability: planning, instigating, conspiracy, direct and indirect perpetration, co-perpetration, the three forms of joint criminal enterprise, the doctrine of common purpose under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, command responsibility and aiding and abetting.

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