From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms

Started in January 2017

Context

Contemporary armed conflicts are characterized by an increase in violence against civilians by both states and armed non-state actors (ANSAs). According to the latest United Nations figures, more than 65 million people have been displaced by conflict, violence or persecution and more than 20 million people, including 1.4 million children, are on the brink of famine in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen. The majority of these conflicts involve one or several ANSAs. It is therefore urgent to address the lack of compliance by these non-state actors with the applicable international norms.

Case law and current practice have confirmed that international humanitarian law (IHL) applies to ANSAs that are parties to armed conflicts. Whether ANSAs also have human rights obligations remains controversial. It is nevertheless increasingly recognized that they might be accountable under human rights law when they exercise de facto governmental authority over a given population. The precise human rights norms (such as the right to freedom of expression or freedom of religion) that would be applicable in these cases have yet to be identified. Irrespective of the applicable legal framework, concerns and specific characteristics of ANSAs are rarely taken into account when drafting the norms. Given the prevalent state-centred paradigm of public international law, ANSAs are not entitled to ratify the relevant international treaties, and are generally precluded from participating as full members of any treaty drafting body. Similarly, states being the main subjects of international law, customary international law is predominantly formed by their practice and ‘opinio juris’. While there are many factors that explain the violation of any norm, an important one is the prevalent ‘top-down’ approach of the international legal system, which is employed to impose IHL and human rights obligations on ANSAs – thus leading to poor implementation of the rules.

Objectives

This project aims at compiling and analysing the practice and interpretation of selected IHL and human rights norms by ANSAs. It has a pragmatic double objective: first, to offer a comparative analysis of IHL and human rights norms from the perspective of ANSAs, and second, to inform strategies of humanitarian engagement with ANSAs, in particular the content of a possible ‘Model Code of Conduct’.

Methodology

ANSA practices and views will be collected through available unilateral engagements, public declarations, special agreements and peace treaties. In addition, field research and interviews with selected ANSAs will also be conducted.

Partnership

This project is conducted in partnership with the Swiss NGO Geneva Call.

RESEARCHER

Picture of Annyssa Bellal

Annyssa Bellal

Senior Research Fellow and Strategic Adviser on International Humanitarian Law

Annyssa Bellal's areas of expertise include public international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and armed non-state actors.

Publications

Cover of the In-Brief N°7

Human Rights Obligations of Armed Non-State Actors: An Exploration of the Practice of the UN Human Rights Council

December 2016

Annyssa Bellal

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Download >

Cover of the Policy Briefing No1: Reactions to Norms Armed Groups and the Protection of Civilians

Reactions to Norms Armed Groups and the Protection of Civilians

January 2014

Alice Priddy

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Cover of the Rules of Engagement: Protecting Civilians through Dialogue with Armed Non-State Actors

Rules of Engagement: Protecting Civilians through Dialogue with Armed Non-State Actors

October 2011

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Download >

MORE ON THIS THEMATIC AREA

Two persons walk in the ruins of Aleppo, Syria Current Issues in Armed Conflict Conference

Third Current Issues in Armed Conflict Conference

June 2019, 09:00-17:00

This annual conference, co-organized with the Human Rights Centre of University of Essex, provides a space to discuss the legal and policy issues that have arisen in the past and the current year in relation to armed conflicts situations.

Read more

Photo of Helen Durham Current Issues in Armed Conflict Conference

Black Magic, Zombies and Dragons: a Tale of International Humanitarian Law in the 21st Century

June 2019, 17:45-20:00

To close the third edition of the Current Issues in Armed Conflict Conference, Helen Durham, Director of Law and Policy at the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) will deliver a keynote address.

Read more

doption of the Arms Trade Treaty by the UN General Assembly, 2 April 2013 Project

The Arms Trade Treaty

Completed in January 2013

The Geneva Academy team followed the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) negotiations and provided key information on the negotiations, notably via a daily blog.

Read more

Screenshot of the RULAC webpage Project

Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts (RULAC)

Started in May 2007

The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts project (RULAC) is a unique online portal that identifies and classifies all situations of armed violence that amount to an armed conflict under international humanitarian law (IHL). It is primarily a legal reference source for a broad audience, including non-specialists, interested in issues surrounding the classification of armed conflicts under IHL.

Read more