From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretation of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms

Started in January 2017

Context

Contemporary armed conflicts are characterized by an increase in violence against civilians by both states and armed non-state actors (ANSAs). According to the latest United Nations figures, more than 65 million people have been displaced by conflict, violence or persecution and more than 20 million people, including 1.4 million children, are on the brink of famine in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan and Yemen. The majority of these conflicts involve one or several ANSAs. It is therefore urgent to address the lack of compliance by these non-state actors with the applicable international norms.

Case law and current practice have confirmed that international humanitarian law (IHL) applies to ANSAs that are parties to armed conflicts. Whether ANSAs also have human rights obligations remains controversial. It is nevertheless increasingly recognized that they might be accountable under human rights law when they exercise de facto governmental authority over a given population. The precise human rights norms (such as the right to freedom of expression or freedom of religion) that would be applicable in these cases have yet to be identified. Irrespective of the applicable legal framework, concerns and specific characteristics of ANSAs are rarely taken into account when drafting the norms. Given the prevalent state-centred paradigm of public international law, ANSAs are not entitled to ratify the relevant international treaties, and are generally precluded from participating as full members of any treaty drafting body. Similarly, states being the main subjects of international law, customary international law is predominantly formed by their practice and ‘opinio juris’. While there are many factors that explain the violation of any norm, an important one is the prevalent ‘top-down’ approach of the international legal system, which is employed to impose IHL and human rights obligations on ANSAs – thus leading to poor implementation of the rules.

Objectives

This project aims at compiling and analysing the practice and interpretation of selected IHL and human rights norms by ANSAs. It has a pragmatic double objective: first, to offer a comparative analysis of IHL and human rights norms from the perspective of ANSAs, and second, to inform strategies of humanitarian engagement with ANSAs, in particular the content of a possible ‘Model Code of Conduct’.

Methodology

ANSA practices and views will be collected through available unilateral engagements, public declarations, special agreements and peace treaties. In addition, field research and interviews with selected ANSAs will also be conducted.

Partnership

This project is conducted in partnership with the Swiss NGO Geneva Call.

RESEARCHERS

Picture of Annyssa Bellal

Annyssa Bellal

Senior Research Fellow and Strategic Adviser on International Humanitarian Law

Annyssa Bellal's areas of expertise include public international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and armed non-state actors.

Publications

Cover of the publication

From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretations of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms

December 2019

Pascal Bongard, Ezequiel Heffes

The Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

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Cover of the In-Brief N°7

Human Rights Obligations of Armed Non-State Actors: An Exploration of the Practice of the UN Human Rights Council

December 2016

Annyssa Bellal

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

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Cover of the Policy Briefing No1: Reactions to Norms Armed Groups and the Protection of Civilians

Reactions to Norms Armed Groups and the Protection of Civilians

January 2014

Alice Priddy

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Cover of the Rules of Engagement: Protecting Civilians through Dialogue with Armed Non-State Actors

Rules of Engagement: Protecting Civilians through Dialogue with Armed Non-State Actors

October 2011

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

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NEWS AND EVENTS

Fighters firing rockets in Libya News

New Research Brief Outlines the Methodology, Research Questions and Focus of a Major Research Project on Armed Non-State Actor

December 2019

The Research Brief From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretations of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms summarizes the focus, objectives, methodology and research questions of this project.

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Human Rights Responsibilities and Armed Non-State Actors

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This research aims at building a common understanding and vision as to how states and the relevant parts of the UN system can provide a concrete and practical framework to address human rights responsibilities of armed non-state actors.

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Cover of the publication Publication

From Words to Deeds: A Study of Armed Non-State Actors’ Practice and Interpretations of International Humanitarian and Human Rights Norms

published on December 2019

Annyssa Bellal, Pascal Bongard, Ezequiel Heffes

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