Sandra Krähenmann

Sandra Krähenmann

Senior Policy and Legal Adviser, Geneva Call

Areas of expertise

Qualification of Armed Conflict  /  International Human Rights Law  /  Counter-terrorism  /  States of Emergency  /  Positive Obligations  /  Extraterritoriality

Dr Sandra Krähenmann is a Senior Policy and Legal Adviser at Geneva Call.

She conducts legal research on the impact of counter-terrorism on human rights law and international humanitarian law, during the last two years with a particular focus on measures to stem the so-called foreign fighter phenomenon. She has written a series of articles on these topics and is currently co-authoring a book on the protection of human rights in times of terror and conflicts.

Previously, Sandra Krähenmann was a Senior Research Fellow at the Geneva Academy, where, amongst others, she was the lead researcher for the RULAC project, a website that analyses whether or not situations of armed violence amount to an armed conflict under international humanitarian law.

Before joining the Geneva Academy, Sandra Krähenmann worked for the Swiss Ministry of Defense, as a consultant for various NGOs and as a teaching assistant at the University of Geneva.

She holds a PhD in international law from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva.

Taught Courses

Room at the UN Headquarters in New York Master in transitional justice - Course

International Law and Transitional Justice: Mapping the Terrain

This introductory course provides a mapping of the various fields of international law in order to give students a birds’ view on the relevant legal frameworks, their main rules relevant for transitional justice processes, their respective scopes of application, and their implementation mechanisms.

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North Kivu province, Kitchanga downtown. The insanitary conditions next to the market worsens the situation of the residents affected by the recent violence. Executive Master - Course

The Interplay between International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

This course focuses on the specific issues that arise in times of armed conflict regarding the respect, protection and fulfillment of human rights. It addresses key issues like the applicability of human rights in times of armed conflict; the possibilities of restricting human rights under systems of limitations and derogations; and the extraterritorial application of human rights law.

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Cover of the Book Definitions


March 2018

Sandra Krähenmann

Frank Haldemann and Thomas Unger, The United Nations Principles to Combat Impunity. A Commentary, Oxford University Press

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Cover of The Obligations of the State of Nationality or Habitual Residence, State of Transit, and State of Destination

The Obligations of the State of Nationality or Habitual Residence, State of Transit, and State of Destination

February 2016

Sandra Krähenmann

Andrea de Guttry, Francesca Capone and Christophe Paulussen, Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, TMC Asser

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Cover of the Research Handbook on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law

Positive Obligations During Armed Conflict

October 2013

Sandra Krähenmann

Robert Kolb and Gloria Gaggioli, Research Handbook on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, Edward Elgar Publishing

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Our research examines issues that are under-explored, need clarification, or are unconventional, experimental or challenging.

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Executive Education

We provide training and short courses for professionals who want to deepen their expertise in a specific issue.

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Our events provide a critical and scholarly forum for experts and practitioners to debate topical humanitarian, human rights and transitional justice issues.

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UNMISS Peacekeepers News

New Working Paper Examines the Role of Peacekeeping Operations in Ensuring Respect for IHL

5 October 2021

The UN Security Council and Common Article 1: Understanding the Role of Peacekeeping Operations in Ensuring Respect for IHL examines the applicability of article 1 common to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 – on the obligation to respect and ensure respect for IHL – to the UN, with a specific focus on peacekeeping operations.

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New Working Paper Discusses the Relevance of Smart Mix Measure in AI Governance and Regulation

1 October 2021

Our new Working Paper discusses how current initiatives on the regulation of artificial intelligence technologies should incorporate the protection and respect for human rights.

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 Taliban fighters on a truck in Kabul, August 17 2021 IHL Talks


28 October 2021, 15:00-16:00

This online IHL talk aims at shining light on some of the many legal, political and protection-related challenges stemming from the situation in Afghanistan.

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